Not only are the government recommendations overly cautious and "for dummies" and "nice round numbers", they are, as somebody pointed out above, for "instantaneous" temps. That is, for air cooking, you set the oven at a MUCH higher heat than is required for the protein to be considered safe, and you wait for that heat to work its way inward, until the temp is ALMOST the recommended (for dummies) value at the center of mass, and (if you are lucky or proficient) you whip it out and let it rest while that internal heat finishes the migration into the center of the roast or steak or... whatever. But our whole reason for having turned to sous vide is that while the instantaneous kill-everything-instantly temperature of air-cooking is just being reached in the center of mass, almost all the flesh outside the center had to be overcooked. Air/oven/bar-bee times and heats are rule-of-thumb conventions that have been found to get the required heat to the middle of the piece of beast with the least dessication (shoe-leathering) of the outer bits. It takes more heat and time than you might hope, because air is not a great medium, and dry air is even less conductive, while also hastening the loss of moisture from the protein.
In sous vide, we assume a longer time for overall cooking, because we are applying just enough heat to get the bath to the temperature we want the protein to reach. It necessarily takes much longer for that to happen, and as pointed out, the gentler final temperature is not an instantaneous kill. Instead, it's a temp that the toughest specimens of pathogens can withstand briefly, but that kills them with a bit of time. Therefore, we have TEMPERATURES that are set for a given protein for various reasons that have to do with the strains of pathogen that are known to thrive on the particular protein. The ones that love a good steak are different from the ones that love chicken. So, instead of "for dummies" internal temperature requirements, we have "for dummies" duration requirements. The reason that those times are not vastly longer (given the lower temps involved in sous vide) is that water is a much better thermal transfer medium, and the thin layer of a plastic bag, with no air inside, allows contact with the water bath that's almost as good as it would be if you poached... but without leaching the flavor as poaching would do.
But just when it started sounding straightforward, we throw in the complication of texture of the protein. We want the collagen to break down, especially in the cuts of beast that start our relatively tough, and that takes a longer exposure to cooking temperature than simply killing off bacteria. So, a bunch of people have done a ton of informed trial-and-oh-drat-I-ruined-the-fish experimentation to discover the ranges of time/temp exposure that not only kill the bacteria but also bring the meat to a desired texture. Not too tough, but not mushy or mealy, either. In one sense, it's inconvenient that we have to wait so long to eat. But on the other hand, it helps that the collagen breakdown is a slow process, with not much change taking place within (say) half an hour. So, we can hold the food until a convenient time (the fashionably-late guests have finally arrived), without overcooking.
ChefSteps is doing a very commendable job of putting together tables and charts for an ever-increasing assortment of raw materials, recipes, etc. Kudos.